薪水应该怎么花?怎样才能存下钱?存钱真的有用吗?哪些消费才是明智的?

这些对于很多职场新人来说都是很头疼的问题。

美国人对本国的职场新人做了一个调查,了他们支配自己收入的方式;如果你正在被这类问题困扰着,不如先来看看他们是怎么管理自己的薪水的吧。

Einstein once said that the most powerful force in the universe was compound interest.
爱因斯坦曾经说过:宇宙中最强大的力量就是复利。

No one is in a better position to harness this force than those who have just started earning a regular salary. But popular wisdom tells you that it is just this demographic that has a tough time saving. Salaries are typically lower.
而那些刚刚开始拿薪水的人,就是最能从这股力量中获利的人了。但是,众所周知,这恰好就是那群不擅长存钱的人。而且他们的工资通常也不算高。

Here’s how that paycheck gets divvied up across the nation.
以下是一个普通美国人对自己收入的支配情况:

1. Housing (31.9%)
住房——占总收入的31.9%

Among households in this age group, 61% are renting.
在这个年龄的人当中,61%的人是租房住的。

The average rent/mortgage check is $894 per month(60% of the total cost on housing). Obviously, this figure will vary widely based on location.
他们平均每月的租金或房贷是894美元(占住房总花销的60%)。不过显然,这个数字随着地区不同而不同。

The rest of the balance of housing money is devoted to utilities, household supplies, furniture, and appliances.
而住房花销中剩下的那部分,用在了水电燃气、日用品、家具和各种小物件上面。

2. Transportation (16.3%)
交通——占总收入的16.3%

This includes monthly payments for the purchase of new/used cars, which runs roughly $296 per month.
这包括买车的钱以及车贷平均到每月的花销,大概是296美元。(这对于中国的毕业生来讲不太一样,毕竟在中国还是以公共交通为主)

Last year, an average of $204 per month was spent on gasoline.
去年,在汽油上的平均花销是204美元。

The rest is used on maintenance, insurance, and “other vehicle expenses.”
其他的部分花在了维护费用、保险以及其他交通花销上。

3. Healthcare (4.9%)
健康——占总收入的4.9%

Here’s where it really pays to be young.
这就是年轻真正的好处。(健康方面可以少花钱)

Healthcare spending is one of the only categories that consistently inches upward throughout life.
健康是唯一一个随着年龄增长而花销变大的门类。

Of this total, 70% is used to cover insurance premiums, which likely means that employers are chipping in a significant percentage of the total cost of coverage.
而这里面的70%是花在了健康保险上面,所以基本上可以说是用人单位覆盖了里面的大部分。(在中国的普遍情况就是公司交掉一半)

4. Food (12.1%)
饮食——占总收入的12.1%

Typically, 45% is spent on eating out.
一般来讲,这其中的45%是花在了外出就餐上面。

Meats, fish, eggs, fruits, and vegetables make up over 40% of the money that is spent monthly for food at home.
而在家吃的那一部分花销里,肉、鱼、鸡蛋、水果、蔬菜等食材占据了40%。(剩下的可能是零食吧)

5. Entertainment (4.4%)
娱乐——占总收入的4.4%

When you think about it, it’s a pretty good deal when you’re able to spend as much on entertainment as you do on healthcare.
仔细想一下的话,娱乐的花销可以和健康花销等量,还是一件挺划算的事。

I should note that these figures include the costs of pets, TVs, hobbies, and any type of event you might attend.
我要指出,这部分花销包括了宠物、电视、兴趣爱好以及其他一切你可能参与的活动。

6. Pensions and Social Security (9.8%)
社保、养老金——占总收入的9.8%

As you’ll see at the end, though, even with reduced benefits in the future, Social Security can play a key role in your retirement.
你们最终会明白的,虽然这些东西以后的价值会变低,但社保在你退休之后还是举足轻重的。(在中国,这部分一般是公司在发薪前就代缴了,而公司负担其中大部分)

7. Education (2%)
教育——占总收入的2%

Many will argue that this number should be higher. After all, the graduation is only a beginning. Your career just started and there's a lot of skills to acquire if you wanna get promoted and paid better.
很多人都觉得这一部分应该更高一些。毕竟,毕业只是一个新阶段的开始。你的职业生涯才刚刚起步,如果你想升职加薪的话,还有不少技能要学。

8. Other (9.3%)
其他——占总收入的9.3%

This covers a lot of different categories: clothes, alcohol, personal care products, cigarettes, donations, and even alimony payments. Lump all of them together and this is what you get.
这一部分包含很多门类:服装、酒、个人护理产品、烟、慈善捐赠甚至赡养费。把它们全部加起来就是你能自由支配的那一部分了。(能存下来的最大值)

That leaves the average household of 2 people with $423 per month.
这对于一般的家庭(两口人)来说,就是每月423美元(约合人民币2800元)

This may sound like a lot or a little, depending on your point of view. But let’s put it in perspective. This is equivalent to saving $5,076 per year.
这在你看来可能算多,也可能算少。不过且让我们用不偏不倚的视角来看看,这相当于每年5076美元(约合人民币34000元)。

If we assume that a couple, aged 30, is able to put away this much every month until they retired at age 67, adjusted for inflation, and assuming a return of 9% (just below the stock market’s historical average), they would have an equivalent of $484,000 in their nest egg come retirement time.
如果我们假设,一对30岁的夫妻,每月能存下这么多钱,一直存到67岁退休,然后假设他们的投资回报率是9%(刚好低于股票市场历史回报率的平均值),再算上通货膨胀,那他们在退休的时候就会有一笔484,000美元的财富(约合人民币326万元)。

Obviously, not everyone who reads this will represent the “average” household for this age group. There’s tons of variability.
不过显然,并不是所有读这篇文章的人都恰好是这个年龄段中的平均水平,变量是非常多的。

If nothing else, a key takeaway should be that if you want to super-charge your savings, focus on the Big Three of housing, transportation, and food to leverage your efforts.
但抛开一切不谈,最重要的一点建议是:如果你想让你的积蓄发挥最大的价值,你应该着重在住房、交通、饮食这三个大头上面精打细算。

 

(翻译:能猫)